ADITYA-L1 MISSION: The first observatory-class space-based solar mission from India

The biggest and closest star in the solar system is our Sun. The sun is thought to be 4.5 billion years old. It is a blazing ball of helium and hydrogen gas. Our solar system gets its energy from the sun, which is located around 150 million kilometers from the planet. The existence of life on earth as we know it is dependent upon solar energy.The solar system’s components are all held together by the gravity of the sun. The “core,” or center, of the sun may reach temperatures of up to 15 million degrees Celsius. The sun is powered by a process called nuclear fusion that occurs in its core at this temperature. The photosphere, or visible surface of the Sun, is comparatively cold and has a temperature of roughly 5,500°C.


Since the sun is the closest star, it may be examined in more detail than other stars. We can learn a lot more about stars in our Milky Way galaxy and other galaxies by observing the sun.The sun is an extremely active star that stretches well beyond our visual range. It exhibits a number of eruptive features and unleashes a massive quantity of energy across the solar system. Such violent solar occurrences might generate a variety of perturbations in the space environment close to the earth if they are aimed towards the planet.

Numerous spacecraft and communication systems are vulnerable to these disruptions, therefore early notification of such occurrences is crucial for taking preventative action. In addition to these risks, an astronaut would be in danger if they were exposed directly to such explosive events. On the sun, there are several severe thermal and magnetic phenomena. As a result, the sun serves as a useful natural laboratory for understanding processes that cannot be directly investigated in a lab.


The sun’s electromagnetic radiation, heat, and continuous flow of particles and magnetic fields have an ongoing impact on Earth. Solar wind is the term for the continuous flow of solar particles, which are mostly made up of protons with high energy. The known solar system is almost entirely filled with solar wind. The solar system is also filled with the solar magnetic field in addition to the solar wind.

The nature of space is impacted by the solar wind and other violent or eruptive solar occurrences like the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME).These occurrences alter the magnetic field’s characteristics as well as the environment of charged particles close to the planet. A magnetic disturbance may occur close to the Earth in the case of the Earth when the Earth’s magnetic field interacts with the field delivered by the CME. Such occurrences may interfere with the operation of space assets.

Space weather is the term used to describe shifting climatic conditions in space around Earth and other planets. We utilize more and more technology in space because it is crucial to comprehend space weather. Additionally, knowledge of the space weather close to Earth provides insight on the behavior of the space weather on other worlds.


The first Indian solar mission to investigate the Sun in orbit is called Aditya L1. The spacecraft will be positioned in a halo orbit 1.5 million kilometers from Earth, at the Lagrangian point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system. The main benefit of having a satellite in the halo orbit around the L1 point is that it may continually see the Sun without experiencing any occultation or eclipse. The benefit of continually studying solar activity will increase as a result.

The spacecraft is equipped with seven payloads that use particle and electromagnetic detectors to study the photosphere, chromosphere, and the Sun’s outermost layers (the corona).Four payloads use the unique vantage position of L1 to see the Sun directly, while the other three payloads do in-depth research on particles and fields there. In order to comprehend the issues of coronal heating, coronal mass ejection, pre-flare and flare activities, and their characteristics, dynamics of space weather, study of the propagation of particles, and fields in the interplanetary medium, etc., the Aditya L1 payloads are expected to provide the most important information.


The major scientific objectives of the Aditya-L1 mission are as follows:

1. Research on the dynamics of the solar corona and chromosphere.

2. Research on solar heating, flares, coronal mass ejections, partial ionization of the plasma, and chromospheric ionization

3. Keep an eye on the in-situ particle and plasma environment the Sun offers, since this data will be utilized to examine particle dynamics.

4. The solar corona’s heating mechanism and its physics.

5. Coronal and coronal loop plasma temperature, velocity, and density observations.

6. The formation, development, and dynamics of CMEs.

7. Determine the sequence of activities that occur at different layers (chromosphere, base, and extended corona) and eventually lead to solar eruptive events.

8. Measurements of and topologies of the magnetic fields in the solar corona.

9. Space weather-related factors (solar wind dynamics, composition, and origin).


Seven scientific payloads are carried by the Aditya-L1 mission to conduct a thorough study of the Sun.The solar corona and the dynamics of coronal mass ejections are studied via the Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC).The Solar Ultra-violet Imaging Telescope (SUIT) payload analyzes solar irradiance fluctuations in the near UV and takes pictures of the solar photosphere and chromosphere in the near ultraviolet.

The solar wind and energetic ions, as well as their energy distribution, are studied by the Aditya Solar wind Particle EXperiment (ASPEX) and Plasma Analyser Package for Aditya (PAPA) payloads. The High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS) and the Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS) both study solar X-ray flares across a broad energy range. Interplanetary magnetic fields may be measured at the L1 point using the Magnetometer payload.

Aditya-L1’s scientific payloads were created domestically by many research facilities. The Indian Institute of Astrophysics-Bangalore is where the VELC instrument is being constructed. Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics in Pune is home to the SUIT instrument. Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad has an ASPEX device. PAPA payload at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre’s Space Physics Laboratory in Thiruvananthapuram. SoLEXS and HEL1OS payloads at the Bangalore-based U R Rao Satellite Center. And the Bangalore Laboratory for Electro Optics Systems’ Magnetometer payload. All of the payloads were created in close cooperation with different ISRO centers.

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